The last issue for 2012 is now available. Besides data in tables and maps, the miscellaneous article highlights the successful project to control rabies on the Philippine island of Bohol. The project continues to serve as a model for “One Health” and was achieved through the joint efforts of local and national government of the Philippines, contributions from donors, and the dedicated efforts of experts from the sectors of public health, education, animal health and agriculture, environment, legislation, and non-government partners.
The 3rd issue of the WHO Rabies
Bulletin Europe for 2012 is available. The reported rabies cases are presented
in tables and a map. The first miscellaneous article is a case report on an
imported human rabies case in Switzerland. The U.S. citizen died after being
hospitalized and sequence analysis of the rabies virus revealed an association
to insectivorous bats in the Americas. The second article by Dr. Meslin gives an
overview of the topics discussed at the World Health Organization (WHO)
International Expert Consultation on rabies held at WHO’s headquarters in
Geneva, Switzerland, on 18–20 September 2012.. Countries endemic for canine
rabies were urged to initiate and strengthen their rabies prevention and control
activities, and to increase the level of awareness about the disease,
particularly among children.
The latest issue of the WHO Rabies Bulletin
Europe is available. The reported rabies cases of the 2nd quarter 2012 are
presented in tables. Interestingly, among the 9 bat rabies cases reported is a
second case of Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV), this time detected in a Natterer’s
bat in France. Also, in Spain a Miniopterus schreibersii bat tested positive and
preliminary results by the team of Juan Echevarria suggest that this virus
represents yet another novel lyssavirus named Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLBLV). The
scientific paper(s) on this novel virus will be much appreciated.
The first miscellaneous article provides
first-hand information on the rabies situation in Jordan. The report was
prepared following a workshop on rabies prevention and control in Amman funded
by the European Union. Those who wanted to make use of the sequences available
on NCBI sequence database may have experienced problems as often several
sequence entries for an individual virus exist, caused by duplication of data by
different submitting laboratories and limited or absent submission details,
resulting in extensive searches of the literature to collate the relevant data.
The second article introduces a newly developed, easily searchable, on-line
sequence database for lyssaviruses, which combines all necessary information on
the virus, the sequence and further laboratory information.
In the latest issue (2012/I) the first miscellaneous article by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control covers the World Rabies Day initiative that was started in 2007 and that saw events in 74 countries, reaching 54.3 million people worldwide.
The second article is an obituary for Jim Cox, a former staff member of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research who passed away early this year.
As usual, the rabies surveillance data is presented in tables and a map.
The last issue for 2011 has been published the printed version will be delivered in due time.
The miscellaneous article covers information on the surveillance efforts in Greece. Greece that had the last indigenous rabies case in 1987 started an increased surveillance along the border with Bulgaria and FYROM. In the latter country rabies in foxes emerged recently.
The second article is a summary on the latest virus discoveries that indicated a higher diversity of the lyssavirus genus. With Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV) and Ikoma virus (IKOV) two new African lyssaviruses were discovered, the isolation of the Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in a Natterers bat from Germany indicates, that lyssaviruses may be circulating unrecognized in areas with a seemingly intensive surveillance as in Central Europe.
As usual, the rabies surveillance data is presented in tables and a map. Also, the area covered by oral rabies vaccination in Europe is provided.
The pdf-archive of the WHO Rabies
Bulletin Europe was completed by adding the maps (Rabies cases in Europe) to the
respective issues. The technical support by Mandy Naß, Viola Damrau and Anke
Kliemt is gratefully acknowledged.
The content of the website was
updated. Please note the changes in the requirements for pet travel in Europe.
From January 1st 2012 transitional measures in the Pet Regulation that had
allowed certain Member States to continue the application of national rules in
regards to the decision (EC) 998/2003 have expired. Also, the list of
EU-approved laboratories for the serological tests was updated.
of the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe was completed. Now, all published issues
starting from 1977 are available as PDF.
The latest issue of the RBE
(II/2010) has been published. As usual, we present the rabies surveillance data
in tables and a map. For the first time in recent decades rabies cases were
detected in Macedonia. Presumably the cases were noticed as a result of the
increased surveillance and awareness activities as part of the EU-funded oral
rabies vaccination programme in Macedonia. A multi-national meeting on this
issue will be held at the end of 2011.
The first miscellaneous article
covers a tragic death of a young girl from Romania following the bite of a rabid
cat. Sadly, PEP was not administered and the girl was hospitalized after the
first signs of the disease. In the doctors’ desperate fight against the
inevitable the “Milwaukee protocol” was used, however without success.
The second article is provided by
the colleagues from the ANSES, Nancy which was designated as European Union
Reference Laboratory for Rabies in 2008. This article reviews data on rabies
diagnoses and follow-up investigations of oral rabies vaccination performed in
NRLs in the European Union in 2010.
Rabies Bulletin Europe – new issue
(I/2011) available. The first miscellaneous article covers the European Union
(EU) strategy for external cooperation with neighbouring countries in respect to
oral rabies vaccination. The success story of rabies control in Europe using
oral rabies vaccination would not have been told if the EU hadn’t financially
supported this project. The second article provides information on bat rabies
surveillance in Finland. Recently, EBLV-2 was also isolated from a Daubenton’s
bat in the south of Finland. As usual, you will find the rabies surveillance
data kindly submitted by our contributors in tables and a map.
Immunological Basis for Immunization Series Module 17: Rabies has been published
by WHO. The series crated in 1993 initially focused on the vaccines included in
the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Later with the development of the Global
Immunization Vision and Strategy and the expansion of immunization programmes in
general the decision was taken to update and extend this series.The main purpose
of the modules - which are published as separate disease/vaccine specific modules - is to give immunization managers and vaccination professionals a brief
and easily-understood overview of the scientific basis of vaccination, and also of the immunological basis for the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vaccine use (see latest WHO position paper on rabies vaccines
- WER august 2010). Dr D. Briggs (Alliance for Rabies Control9 accepted to write this up for WHO and Dr Philippe Duclos and his colleagues FCH/IVB in WHO)
included rabies in the list of diseases to be considered by the immunological basis for immunization series.http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501088_eng.pdf
The last issue for 2010 has
been published. As usual, we present the rabies surveillance data summarized for
2010 as well as the details for the last quarter of 2010. A map showing the area
covered by ORV campaigns in Europe in 2010 is included. In this issue we provide
a miscellaneous article upsurge of rabies in the Malopolskie voivodship and a
second article summarizes the 3rd European workshop for rabies by the EU-RL at
Europe – new issue (III/2010) available. The first miscellaneous article covers the Swiss bat rabies surveillance
results. The second article by Tiziana Lembo and the Partners for Rabies
Prevention is about the development of a “Blueprint for Rabies Prevention and
Control”. It brings together all the necessary components for an integrated
approach to eliminate canine rabies. As usual, all rabies data is presented in
tables and a map.
Belated distribution of WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe (printed
Dear addressees of the RBE,
You may have realized that the two latest issues of the printed version have
not been distributed despite being already published as pdf on the website.
Please accept our apologies for this delay, but there are problems
associated with the print company. We are confident that we can solve this
matter and that the printed version will be out soon.
Rabies Bulletin Europe – new issue (II/2010) available. The miscellaneous articles cover an imported rabies case in Germany and a summary of the report “Development of harmonised schemes for monitoring and reporting of rabies in animals in the European Union” as a result of an EFSA call. As usual, the rabies situation is demonstrated in tables and a map.
Rabies Bulletin Europe – new issue (I/2010) available.
The first miscellaneous article covers monkey bites in southern France. The
increasing monkey-human interactions are potentially dangerous as they promote
zoonosis transmission like rabies. In this issue we also provide a miscellaneous
article covering a travel related human case in Northern Ireland. The results of
the diagnostics applied suggest that there is a narrow window for ante-mortem
diagnosis of disease based on detection of virus in accessible samples such as
saliva, CSF, and skin biopsy.
Rabies Bulletin Europe – new issue (III/2009) available.
Rabies Bulletin Europe – new issue (II/2009) available.
In this issue we provide a
miscellaneous article covering an illegally imported dog that was confirmed
rabid in Germany. The second article was provided by Albanian colleagues
describing their surveillance efforts to detect rabies in wildlife in Albania.
Also, all rabies cases reported to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe are displayed
in tables and a map.
The latest issue of the Rabies Bulletin Europe
has been published. Three miscellaneous articles cover different topics related
to rabies. The first is a joint article by the Italian and Slovenian rabies
experts outlining the recent developments of sylvatic rabies in both countries
and the respective control measures. Also, in the context of oral vaccination of
foxes we took the liberty of addressing problems in public tenders for baits in
EU-funded ORV campaigns that may threaten the overall success of rabies control
in Europe. Last, we are honoured to provide two articles on the life and
successes of Dr. George Martin Baer, one of the foremost international rabies
experts who died on June 2, 2009, in Mexico City, Mexico.
The last issue for 2008 has been published
–the printed version will be delivered in due time. A map of oral vaccination
campaign areas in 2008 is included. All countries with OIF programmes are asked
to send data on their vaccination areas on a regular basis.
The miscellaneous article covers information on two rabies cases in cats in
France associated with EBLV-1 infections.
The 2nd issue of 2008 has been
published online and the printed version will be delivered in due time. The
first miscellaneous article is provided by the colleagues from the AFFSA, Nancy,
France designated as Community Reference Laboratory for Rabies on July 28th
2008. This article states the terms of references of this new reference lab for
the European Union. The second article is a report about an unusual incubation
period in a Daubenton’s bat tested EBLV-2 positive in the United Kingdom.
In the meantime during the production of this
issue, rabies cases in foxes were found in previously rabies free areas in the
north-east of Italy and also in areas beyond the vaccination belt in Slovenia
bordering Italy. A first report was published in Eurosurveillance (http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19033)
Both countries intend to start oral
vaccination in the affected areas. We will give updates on this development in
Updating the Rabies Bulletin Europe
Thanks to our dedicated technical staff Detlef
Klöß the website has been updated and enlarged. The most obvious change is the
logo of the World Rabies Day on our navigation sidebar. We also included a
separate World Rabies Day section in our navigation to support spreading the
information of this valuable initiative.
The maps produced have sometimes raised questions on accuracy and data source.
Now, we provide background information for our mapping system before displaying
maps. An additional article “Thirty years of WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe - a
reflection” by Dr. Meslin, WHO, has been added to the archive to represent the
history of this journal.
For more detailed information on Rabies in Europe, various publications of WHO
and/or OIE are presented in a new section.
In the general information section of Bats and Rabies a download link to our bat
rabies leaflet has been added. Furthermore, a column video has been added: It
shows behavioural observations in some rabid bats and was kindly provided by
Zomer Bruijn, Amersfoort, Netherlands. It was initially published in RBE
After more than 30 years of “traditional” RBE starting with the
latest RBE 01/2008 we decided to change the size of this bulletin to a journal
style. Due to these efforts the production of the latest issue was delayed. This
step is ment to increase the print quality of the journal, to improve the
convenience for the readers and as a contribution to WHO’s cooperate identity.
We hope to meet your expectations in this way. Otherwise, the content remains
unchanged. The printed version will be delivered in due time.
The last issue for 2007 has been published –The printed
version will be delivered in due time. A map of oral vaccination campaign areas
in 2007 is included. All countries with OIF programmes are asked to send data on
their vaccination areas.
The first miscellaneous article from Eurosurveillance covers a human rabies case
in The Netherlands. The second miscellaneous article is a short summary of the
rabies surveillance data submitted to the WHO CC Wusterhausen. We would like to
take this opportunity to thank those that send the data and to encourage other
countries also submit rabies surveillance data.
The latest issue for the 3rd quarter 2007 has been
published. The printed version will be delivered in due time. The 3
miscellaneous articles cover the first confirmed EBLV-2 case in a Daubenton’s
bat in Germany, WHO’s position paper on vaccines and a report on the success of
the first world rabies day in 2007.
Finally, the 2nd RBE for the year 2007 has been published.
Besides rabies data, miscellaneous articles cover the EUROBATS agreement and the
Belarusian rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after severe wolf bites. Anke
Kliemt, our technical staff member, has transferred rabies data as far back as
1995 into the online-database and is now available for data queries.
The 1st Issue of the RBE for the year
2007 has been published. Please note that for technical reasons one rabies case
from Hungary was not included in the printed version. The style of our mapping
has changed. In the PDF version available in the archive, both styles are
Thanks to our committed staff member
Anke Kliemt, rabies data was transferred into the online-database as far back as
1997 and is now available for data queries.
The OIF area of Estonia in 2006 covered the entire country. The map was
The last issue for 2006 has been published
- a little late, but we tried to include as much data as possible. The printed version
will be delivered in due time. We included a map of oral vaccination campaign areas
in 2006. This map is also published online in a new section within data base queries.
We want to publish this kind of information on an annual basis and we also intend
to enlarge this part retrospectively. All countries with OIF programmes are asked
to send data on their vaccination areas.
Issue III/2006 has been
published on February 19th, 2007. The printed version
will be delivered in due time. From this quarter, Serbia and
Montenegro as separate countries have individual data sets. Prior
data are based on reporting from Serbia and Montenegro (SCG). Please
keep this in mind when searching the database retrospectively.
The RABIES BULLETIN EUROPE II/2006
was issued both printed as well as online on Friday, 1st
Current data for rabies in Europe are presented in tables and a map.
The miscellaneous article covers the epidemiology of rabies in
Romania, a country with a high number of rabies cases in the past.
Romania’s control and eradication plans are outlined in this
new web version of the RABIES BULLETIN EUROPE was released on
Friday, 1st of July.
ensure continuous online-publishing and service two web versions of
the RBE will be published for a transitional period of time. The
user can either use the URL
http://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org and follow the link to the
new version or go directly to http://www.rbe.fli.bund.de. The RBE
II/2006 will then be published only as new version but on the usual
a reliable source of information about rabies in Europe hard copies
of the RBE will be available on request.
the BETA version of the RABIES BULLETIN EUROPE. Small changes will be
made until publishing.
data until the year 2000 has been converted into the new database and it
is intended to go back as far as 1977, when reporting to the RBE
started. There are some difficulties with historical data from certain
countries as the GIS software only uses current administrative unit
data. Thus, these rabies cases have to be included manually.
column Data base queries - Map
maps for „all countries“, Germany and Poland are available. It’s
intended to complete the list of countries by the end of this week. An
interactive map server will be published at the end of this year.
We would appreciate any comments, suggestions and opinions about this
new platform. (WHO-Rabies(at)fli.bund.de)
your web visit at the RABIES BULLETIN EUROPE!